65 biomarkers of 6 different classes from 150μl sample volume on GC- and LC-MS/MS platforms. Contact our experts for any questions or inquiries.

Why did we design this panel?

Amino acids and catabolites

31 markers by GC-MS/MS

Free amino acids in plasma have been associated with risk of cancer, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and low levels are observed in frail, elderly persons (2). Branched chain amino acids (BCAA; Leu, Ile and Val) are associated with insulin resistance, diabetes type 2, cardiovascular disease and early kidney disease (2, 3), and the valine catabolites, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate (3HIB) is belived to play a key role in the development of insulin resistance (3). β-Aminoisobutyrate (BAIBA) increases with exercise and is inversely association with cardiometabolic risk factors.


23 markers by LC-MS/MS

Acylcarnitine esters are formed from the CoASH esters of acetate, propionate, butyrate, medium-chain, long-chain and very-long-chain fatty acids. Acylcarnitines cross the mitochondrial membrane, and such transport is required for beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids for energy production. Carnitine is mainly obtained through the diet, can be consumed as supplement, but about 30% is supplied by de novo synthesis from trimethyllysine (TML), which takes place in liver and kidney. The final step in the synthesis is catalyzed by the α-ketoglutarate-dependent enzyme, gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase (BBOX) that converts gamma-butyrylbetaine into carnitine. Circulating levels of carnitine and acylcarnitines have been related to risk of insulin resistance, diabetes 2, NAFLD and cardiovascular disease (1).

TCA metabolites

7 markers by GC-MS/MS

Studies on metabolomics involving Krebs cycle intermediates in relation to human health and disease usually include few patients and have been performed only recently. These metabolites have been related to BMI, cardiovascular disease (pyruvate, citrate, succinate), diabetes (pyruvate, isocitrate, succinate), NAFLD (isocitrate and citrate), longevity (isocitrate), asthma (succinate), disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis patients (itaconate), and worsening of clinical outcome in cancer patients (succinate, fumarate and α-hydroxyglutarate).

Ketone bodies

2 markers by GC-MS/MS

3-Hydroxybutyrate (bHB) is the most abundant ketone body. It is synthesized from acyl-CoA primarily in the liver. Increasing serum/plasma bHB concentrations reflect upregulated fatty acid β-oxidation as well as ketogenic amino acids catabolism in the liver and skeletal muscle to compensate insufficient glucose supply. bHB synthesis is stimulated and serum/plasma levels increase under conditions of fasting, endurance exercise, malnutrition or metabolic disorders including diabetes mellitus. Acetoacetate (AcAc) is a ketone body primarily produced in the liver under conditions of excessive fatty acid breakdown, including diabetes mellitus leading to diabetic ketoacidosis. High levels of ketone bodies, like bHB and AcAc, are not only indicators of diabetic hyperglycemia, but also markers of disturbed glucose metabolism in the prediabetic state (2).


2 markers by LC-MS/MS

N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and N(6)-(1-carboxyethyl)-L-lysine (CEL) are advanced glycation end products (AGEs) generated by the Maillard reaction (MR) during thermal treatment of foods or are formed in vivo by nonenzymatic chemical reactions, taking place in tissues or fluid where significant concentration of glucose, fructose, or more reactive dicarbonyls react with proteins. CEL is primarily formed by reaction between methylglyoxal and lysine (the AGE path), which is dependent on hyperglycaemia. Thus, the pathways contributing to CEL formation appear to be more limited compared with CML. Like CML, CEL in tissues and serum/plasma increase with age, and have been assigned a role in the pathogenesis of age-related, chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease and renal dysfunction (2, 3).

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Amino acids, amino acid catabolites, acylcarnitines, TCA metabolites, ketone bodies, AGEs

Kynurenines, ratio-derived metabolites, proteins

SCFAs, indoles, choline metabolites, amino acid derived

B-vitamins, functional markers, and methyl donors, fat-soluble vitamins, essential amino acids, meat & fish intake, tobacco use & coffee intake
Biomarkers (n)

Amino acids: Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Kynurenine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Ornithine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Sarcosine, Serine, Threonine, Total cysteine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Valine

Amino acid catabolites: 2-Aminoadipic acid, 2-Hydroxybutyrate, 3-Hydroxysiobutyrate, α-Hydroxyglutaric acid, β-Alanine, β-Aminoisobutyrate, β-Hydroxy B-methylbutyric acid, Phenylacetylglutamine

Acylcarnities: BB, C0, C2, C3, C3-DC, C4, C4-OH, C4-DC, iC5, C5-DC, C5:1, C6, C8, C10, C12, C14, C14-OH, C16, C16-OH, C18, C18-OH, C18:1, C18:2

TCA metabolites: α-Ketoglutarate, Citrate, Fumarate, Isocitrate, Lactate, Malate, Pyruvate

Ketone bodies: Acetoacetate, 3-Hydroxybutyrate

AGEs: Carboxyethyllysine, Carboxymethyllysine


Kynurenines: 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, Anthranilic acid, Kynurenine, Kynurenic acid, Nicotinic acid, Nicotinamide, N1-methylnicotinamide, Picolinic acid, Quinaldic acid, Quinolinic acid, Xanthurenic acid


Proteins: C-Reactive protein, Calprotectin, Serum Amyloid A

Ratio-derived: Kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, PAr index (PLP, PL, PA)


SCFAs: Acetate, Butyrate, Formate, Isobutyrate, Isovalerate, Propionate, Valerate, α-Methylbutyrate

Indoles: 3-Indoxyl sulfate, Imidazole propionate, Indole-3-acetamide, Indole-3-acetate, Indole-3-aldehyde, Indole-3-lactate, Indole-3-propionate

Choline metabolites: Choline, Betaine, DMG, TMAO

Amino acid derived: Phenylacetylglutamine


B-vitamins, functional markers, and methyl donors: 4-Pyridoxic acid, Betaine, Choline, Cobalamin, Flavin mononucleotide, Folate, Methylmalonic acid, N1-methylnicotinamide, Nicotinamide, Nicotinic acid, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxal 5-phosphate, Pyridoxine, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Thiamine monophosphate, Total homocysteine

Fat-soluble vitamins: 25-hydroxy vitamin D2, 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, α-Tocopherol (Vit. E), All-trans retinol (Vit. A), Phylloquinone (Vit. K1), y-Tocopherol (Vit. E)

Essential amino acids: Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine

Meat and fish intake: 1-Methylhistidine, 3-Methylhistidine, B-Alanine, Creatine, Creatinine, TMAO

Tobacco use and coffee intake: Cotinine, Trans-3-hydroxycotinine, Trigonelline

Volume (μl)
Analytical techniques
GC- and LC-MS/MS
GC- and LC-MS/MS
GC- and LC-MS/MS
Turnaround time (weeks)

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