Inflammation & Immune Response

19 biomarkers of 4 different classes from 100μl sample volume on LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF MS platforms. 25 protein isoforms included. Contact our experts for any questions or inquiries.

Why did we design this panel?

We developed a targeted metabolomics panel for investigating inflammation and immune activation to precisely quantify specific metabolites, identify reliable biomarkers, and gain insights into underlying biochemical pathways. This approach supports basic, clinical and epidemiological research as well as early diagnosis, personalized treatment strategies, and the development of new therapeutic interventions, improving disease management and patient outcomes.


12 markers by LC-MS/MS

Kynurenines are pivotal in numerous physiological processes, including immune regulation, neurotransmission, redox balance, energy metabolism, mental health, and cancer biology. Kynurenine (Kyn) is formed from the essential amino acid tryptophan (Trp). One enzyme involved in this reaction is indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which is upregulated by various cytokines, in particular INF-gamma. This explains why immune activation leads to formation of kynurenine and depletion of tryptophan. Thus, the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR) is a marker of cellular (Th-1 type) immune response.

Ratio-derived metabolites

2 markers by LC-MS/MS

The KTR index is the ratio between kynurenine (Kyn) and tryptophan (Trp). This ratio reflects the intial and rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway, catalyzed by indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1). IDO1 is considered as an authentic immune regulator that is induced by some cytokines, including interferon‐γ (IFN‐γ). Thus, KTR is a marker of cellular (Th-1 type) immune response.
The PAr index is the ratio of 4-pyridoxic acid divided by the sum of pyridoxal 5´-phosphate plus pyridoxal (PA/(PLP+PL)). Inflammatory markers account for more than 90 % of the explained variance of PAr, which efficiently discriminates subjects with high inflammatory status. It is only slightly influenced by vitamin B6 intake and reflects increased vitamin B6 catabolism during inflammation.


1 markers by LC-MS/MS

Neopterin, a pyrazino-pyrimidine compound, is synthesized by monocytes and macrophages in response to interferon-𝛾 (IFN-γ) produced by activated T cells. Both total neopterin and neopterin reflect cellular immune response, because IFN-γ induces a step that precedes formation of 7,8-dihydroneopterin in the neopterin pathway. Increased concentrations are observed in infections, autoimmune diseases, malignant tumour diseases and in allograft rejection episodes. Neopterin in serum/plasma shows a strong, positive relation to total homocysteine and to the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR).


3 markers by MALDI-MS including 25 proteoforms

CRP is produced in hepatocytes, mainly under the transcriptional control of cytokines, IL-6 and IL-1. CRP is a major acute-phase reactant and the most important marker for the diagnosis of systemic inflammation in clinical practice. During an acute immune response, levels can increase more than 1000-fold and peak after about 48 h. Low levels of the so-called high-sensitivity (hs- ) CRP below 10 μg/mL are typically found in the general population.
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is another key acute-phase protein and is coded by four different genes. SAA production occurs in the liver and is driven by IL- 6, IL-1, and TNF-α. During acute inflammation, SAA is secreted into the circulation where concentrations could increase more than 1000-fold compared to normal values of <5 μg/mL. 
Calprotectin is a heterocomplex of S100A8 and S100A9, and belongs to endogenous danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) which are intracellular molecules that amplify an immune response and promote inflammation by interaction with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Elevated blood levels have been associated with various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, CVD, metabolic syndrome, and different types of cancer.

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Amino acids, amino acid catabolites, acylcarnitines, TCA metabolites, ketone bodies, AGEs

Kynurenines, ratio-derived metabolites, proteins

SCFAs, indoles, choline metabolites, amino acid derived

B-vitamins, functional markers, and methyl donors, fat-soluble vitamins, essential amino acids, meat & fish intake, tobacco use & coffee intake
Biomarkers (n)

Amino acids: Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Kynurenine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Ornithine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Sarcosine, Serine, Threonine, Total cysteine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Valine

Amino acid catabolites: 2-Aminoadipic acid, 2-Hydroxybutyrate, 3-Hydroxysiobutyrate, α-Hydroxyglutaric acid, β-Alanine, β-Aminoisobutyrate, β-Hydroxy B-methylbutyric acid, Phenylacetylglutamine

Acylcarnities: BB, C0, C2, C3, C3-DC, C4, C4-OH, C4-DC, iC5, C5-DC, C5:1, C6, C8, C10, C12, C14, C14-OH, C16, C16-OH, C18, C18-OH, C18:1, C18:2

TCA metabolites: α-Ketoglutarate, Citrate, Fumarate, Isocitrate, Lactate, Malate, Pyruvate

Ketone bodies: Acetoacetate, 3-Hydroxybutyrate

AGEs: Carboxyethyllysine, Carboxymethyllysine


Kynurenines: 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, Anthranilic acid, Kynurenine, Kynurenic acid, Nicotinic acid, Nicotinamide, N1-methylnicotinamide, Picolinic acid, Quinaldic acid, Quinolinic acid, Xanthurenic acid


Proteins: C-Reactive protein, Calprotectin, Serum Amyloid A

Ratio-derived: Kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, PAr index (PLP, PL, PA)


SCFAs: Acetate, Butyrate, Formate, Isobutyrate, Isovalerate, Propionate, Valerate, α-Methylbutyrate

Indoles: 3-Indoxyl sulfate, Imidazole propionate, Indole-3-acetamide, Indole-3-acetate, Indole-3-aldehyde, Indole-3-lactate, Indole-3-propionate

Choline metabolites: Choline, Betaine, DMG, TMAO

Amino acid derived: Phenylacetylglutamine


B-vitamins, functional markers, and methyl donors: 4-Pyridoxic acid, Betaine, Choline, Cobalamin, Flavin mononucleotide, Folate, Methylmalonic acid, N1-methylnicotinamide, Nicotinamide, Nicotinic acid, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxal 5-phosphate, Pyridoxine, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Thiamine monophosphate, Total homocysteine

Fat-soluble vitamins: 25-hydroxy vitamin D2, 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, α-Tocopherol (Vit. E), All-trans retinol (Vit. A), Phylloquinone (Vit. K1), y-Tocopherol (Vit. E)

Essential amino acids: Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine

Meat and fish intake: 1-Methylhistidine, 3-Methylhistidine, B-Alanine, Creatine, Creatinine, TMAO

Tobacco use and coffee intake: Cotinine, Trans-3-hydroxycotinine, Trigonelline

Volume (μl)
Analytical techniques
GC- and LC-MS/MS
GC- and LC-MS/MS
GC- and LC-MS/MS
Turnaround time (weeks)

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