Nutrition Status & Lifestyle

41 biomarkers of 5 different classes from 200μl sample volume on GC- and LC-MS/MS platforms. Contact our experts for any questions or inquiries.

Why did we design this panel?

B-vitamins, functional markers, and methyl donors

17 markers by GC- and LC-MS/MS

Folate, serum
Folate, erythrocyte
Serum folate as pABG equivalents
RBC-folate as pABG equivalents
Folate species and catabolites
Vitamin B6 species
Functional B6 marker, HKr
Vitamin B1
Vitamin B2 (riboflavins)
Vitamin B3
HCC index

Fat-soluble vitamins

4 markers by LC-MS/MS

A vitamer
D vitamers
E vitamers
K vitamers

Essential amino acids metabolites

9 markers by GC-MS/MS


Meat & fish intake

4 markers by GC- and LC-MS/MS

3-Methylhistidine (3-MH) is formed by methylation of histidine as a posttranslational modification of actin and myosin. 3-MH is liberated during degradation of myofibrillar proteins, is not metabolized or used in proteosynthesis, but is excreted unchanged into the urine. 3-MH in plasma or urine may serve as a marker of muscle degradation, but also reflects dietary meat intake. Endogenous versus dietary 3-MH can be distinguished by simultaneous measurement of 1-methylhistidine (1-MH), which is not formed in humans but occurs in skeletal muscle of several other species.
Choline, phosphatidylcholine and L-carnitine are cleaved by the gut microbiota to trimethylamine (TMA), which is oxidized to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in the liver. TMAO seems to be proatherogenic in animal models and plasma levels are associated with risk of cardiovascular and other diseases in humans (2, 3). Circulating TMAO increases during renal failure, and has been regarded as an uremic toxin (4).
β-Alanine (bAla) is a naturally occurring beta-amino acid that is formed during degradation of carnosine and anserine, but also serves as a precursor for the synthesis of these histidine-containing dipeptides. This explains why beta-alanine may reflect the amount of carnosine/anserine in the body, and serves as a biomarker for the consumption of meat, especially red meat. β-Alanine is used as a supplement. High levels, as encountered in some inborn errors of metabolism causing hyper-beta-alaninemia, may act as a neurotoxin and as a mitochondrial toxin. Circulating levels is inversely associated with dementia (2).

Tobacco use & coffee intake

3 markers by LC-MS/MS

Cotinine is a stable metabolite of nicotine, and is the most widely used biomarker to measure tobacco use and exposure, i.e. both active and passive smoking. Serum cotinine has a half-life of 15 to 40 h and reflects tobacco exposure during the prior 3 to 5 days. The half-life of cotinine is longer than that of nicotine. Thus, the cotinine concentration is therefore rather stable throughout the day.
Trans-3′-hydroxycotinine (OHCot) is the main metabolite of cotinine with a half-life of 6.6 h. The metabolism of cotinine to OHCot is mediated by the enzyme cytochrome p450 2A6 (CYP2A6), encoded by the highly polymorphic CYP2A6 gene, with genotypes strongly associated with nicotine clearance and the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), defined as OHCot:cotinine (2). Other factors, including ethnicity, sex, hormones, smoking intensity, mentholated cigarettes, alcohol use, BMI, are weak predictors of NMR, and account for less than 8 % of NMR variation (3). Thus, NMR, OHCot/cotinine ratio, is a marker of CYP2A6 activity, and individuals can be categorized into “slow” versus “normal/fast metabolizers” based on their NMR value. The status of “slow metabolizer” has been associated with less nicotine dependence, lower smoking intensity, higher rates of smoking cessation and lower risk of lung cancer (2).
Trigonelline is a phytohormone particularly abundant in coffee beans, and is a marker of coffee consumption (2, 3, 4). Roasting of coffee beans partially converts trigonelline to nicotinic acid.

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Amino acids, amino acid catabolites, acylcarnitines, TCA metabolites, ketone bodies, AGEs

Kynurenines, ratio-derived metabolites, proteins

SCFAs, indoles, choline metabolites, amino acid derived

B-vitamins, functional markers, and methyl donors, fat-soluble vitamins, essential amino acids, meat & fish intake, tobacco use & coffee intake
Biomarkers (n)

Amino acids: Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Kynurenine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Ornithine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Sarcosine, Serine, Threonine, Total cysteine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Valine

Amino acid catabolites: 2-Aminoadipic acid, 2-Hydroxybutyrate, 3-Hydroxysiobutyrate, α-Hydroxyglutaric acid, β-Alanine, β-Aminoisobutyrate, β-Hydroxy B-methylbutyric acid, Phenylacetylglutamine

Acylcarnities: BB, C0, C2, C3, C3-DC, C4, C4-OH, C4-DC, iC5, C5-DC, C5:1, C6, C8, C10, C12, C14, C14-OH, C16, C16-OH, C18, C18-OH, C18:1, C18:2

TCA metabolites: α-Ketoglutarate, Citrate, Fumarate, Isocitrate, Lactate, Malate, Pyruvate

Ketone bodies: Acetoacetate, 3-Hydroxybutyrate

AGEs: Carboxyethyllysine, Carboxymethyllysine


Kynurenines: 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, Anthranilic acid, Kynurenine, Kynurenic acid, Nicotinic acid, Nicotinamide, N1-methylnicotinamide, Picolinic acid, Quinaldic acid, Quinolinic acid, Xanthurenic acid


Proteins: C-Reactive protein, Calprotectin, Serum Amyloid A

Ratio-derived: Kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, PAr index (PLP, PL, PA)


SCFAs: Acetate, Butyrate, Formate, Isobutyrate, Isovalerate, Propionate, Valerate, α-Methylbutyrate

Indoles: 3-Indoxyl sulfate, Imidazole propionate, Indole-3-acetamide, Indole-3-acetate, Indole-3-aldehyde, Indole-3-lactate, Indole-3-propionate

Choline metabolites: Choline, Betaine, DMG, TMAO

Amino acid derived: Phenylacetylglutamine


B-vitamins, functional markers, and methyl donors: 4-Pyridoxic acid, Betaine, Choline, Cobalamin, Flavin mononucleotide, Folate, Methylmalonic acid, N1-methylnicotinamide, Nicotinamide, Nicotinic acid, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxal 5-phosphate, Pyridoxine, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Thiamine monophosphate, Total homocysteine

Fat-soluble vitamins: 25-hydroxy vitamin D2, 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, α-Tocopherol (Vit. E), All-trans retinol (Vit. A), Phylloquinone (Vit. K1), y-Tocopherol (Vit. E)

Essential amino acids: Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine

Meat and fish intake: 1-Methylhistidine, 3-Methylhistidine, B-Alanine, Creatine, Creatinine, TMAO

Tobacco use and coffee intake: Cotinine, Trans-3-hydroxycotinine, Trigonelline

Volume (μl)
Analytical techniques
GC- and LC-MS/MS
GC- and LC-MS/MS
GC- and LC-MS/MS
Turnaround time (weeks)

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