20 biomarkers of 4 different classes from 200μl sample volume on GC- and LC-MS/MS platforms. Contact our experts for any questions or inquiries.

Why did we design this panel?


8 markers by LC-MS/MS

SCFAs, in particular butyrate, are anti-inflammatory, expand the pool of intestinal regulatory T cells, protect against allergic sensitization, mitigate production of reactive oxygen species, are essential for gut integrity, and exert antiproliferative effects on cancer cells. Butyrate’s effects on the immune system are mediated through the inhibition of class I histone deacetylases and activation of G-protein coupled receptors: GPR109A, GPR41 and GPR43. SCFAs increase insulin secretion (via GPR41/43), and low gut-derived SCFAs have been suggested to be associated with type II diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity and NAFLD (2).


7 markers by LC-MS/MS

About 5 % of tryptophan is catabolized by the gut microbome, generating so-called microbiome-derived tryptophan metabolites collectively referred to as indoles. Microbiome-derived indoles have diverse biological roles affecting health. Some are ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) thereby modulating the immune response, others have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects, enhance the intestinal epithelial barrier, increase secretion of gut hormones and stimulate intestinal motility. Indoles are generally thought to mediate beneficial health effects, with the exception of 3IS, a host-microbial co-metabolite generated from indole in the liver (2).

Choline oxidation

4 markers by LC-MS/MS

  • Choline
  • Betaine
  • DMG
  • Sarcosine
  • TMAO

Amino acid derived metabolites

1 marker by GC-MS/MS

Phenylacetylglutamine (PAGln) is a bacterial metabolic product of phenylalanine. Phenylalanine is initially converted in the gut to phenylpyruvic acid and further to phenylacetic acid, which is conjugated with glutamine in the liver and kidney forming PAGln. PAGln may accumulate in renal disease and therefore is considered as a uremic toxin (2). Circulating concentrations have been related to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including myocardial infarction, stroke or death, and recently to heart failure and diabetes. Mechanistic studies indicated cardiovascular effects may partly at least be mediated by interaction of PAGln with G-protein coupled adrenergic receptors (2, 3). 

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Amino acids, amino acid catabolites, acylcarnitines, TCA metabolites, ketone bodies, AGEs

Kynurenines, ratio-derived metabolites, proteins

SCFAs, indoles, choline metabolites, amino acid derived

B-vitamins, functional markers, and methyl donors, fat-soluble vitamins, essential amino acids, meat & fish intake, tobacco use & coffee intake
Biomarkers (n)

Amino acids: Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Kynurenine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Ornithine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Sarcosine, Serine, Threonine, Total cysteine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Valine

Amino acid catabolites: 2-Aminoadipic acid, 2-Hydroxybutyrate, 3-Hydroxysiobutyrate, α-Hydroxyglutaric acid, β-Alanine, β-Aminoisobutyrate, β-Hydroxy B-methylbutyric acid, Phenylacetylglutamine

Acylcarnities: BB, C0, C2, C3, C3-DC, C4, C4-OH, C4-DC, iC5, C5-DC, C5:1, C6, C8, C10, C12, C14, C14-OH, C16, C16-OH, C18, C18-OH, C18:1, C18:2

TCA metabolites: α-Ketoglutarate, Citrate, Fumarate, Isocitrate, Lactate, Malate, Pyruvate

Ketone bodies: Acetoacetate, 3-Hydroxybutyrate

AGEs: Carboxyethyllysine, Carboxymethyllysine


Kynurenines: 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, Anthranilic acid, Kynurenine, Kynurenic acid, Nicotinic acid, Nicotinamide, N1-methylnicotinamide, Picolinic acid, Quinaldic acid, Quinolinic acid, Xanthurenic acid


Proteins: C-Reactive protein, Calprotectin, Serum Amyloid A

Ratio-derived: Kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, PAr index (PLP, PL, PA)


SCFAs: Acetate, Butyrate, Formate, Isobutyrate, Isovalerate, Propionate, Valerate, α-Methylbutyrate

Indoles: 3-Indoxyl sulfate, Imidazole propionate, Indole-3-acetamide, Indole-3-acetate, Indole-3-aldehyde, Indole-3-lactate, Indole-3-propionate

Choline metabolites: Choline, Betaine, DMG, TMAO

Amino acid derived: Phenylacetylglutamine


B-vitamins, functional markers, and methyl donors: 4-Pyridoxic acid, Betaine, Choline, Cobalamin, Flavin mononucleotide, Folate, Methylmalonic acid, N1-methylnicotinamide, Nicotinamide, Nicotinic acid, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxal 5-phosphate, Pyridoxine, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Thiamine monophosphate, Total homocysteine

Fat-soluble vitamins: 25-hydroxy vitamin D2, 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, α-Tocopherol (Vit. E), All-trans retinol (Vit. A), Phylloquinone (Vit. K1), y-Tocopherol (Vit. E)

Essential amino acids: Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine

Meat and fish intake: 1-Methylhistidine, 3-Methylhistidine, B-Alanine, Creatine, Creatinine, TMAO

Tobacco use and coffee intake: Cotinine, Trans-3-hydroxycotinine, Trigonelline

Volume (μl)
Analytical techniques
GC- and LC-MS/MS
GC- and LC-MS/MS
GC- and LC-MS/MS
Turnaround time (weeks)

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