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Vitamin B2

B2
Updated 21/12/2022

What is measured?

Synonym: Riboflavin.
What is measured: Riboflavin and the flavin cofactor, flavin mononucleotide (FMN).
Method(s): LC-MS/MS (1).

Indication(s)

Riboflavin is a marker of vitamin B2 status (2).

Specimen, collection and processing

Patient/subject: Prandial status may have some effect on concentrations of riboflavin, but has no effect on FMN.
Matrix: Riboflavin and FMN are most stable in EDTA plasma.
Volume: Minimum volume is 60 µL, but 200 µL is optimal and allows reanalysis.
Preparation and stability: The plasma fraction must be separated from the blood cells, preferentially within 30 minutes. Samples should be put on ice, and protected from light. Riboflavin is light sensitive. In serum, citrate plasma or heparin plasma, FMN is converted to riboflavin. Measurement of the sum of riboflavin plus FMN is an option in samples that have not been adequately treated.

Transportation

Frozen, on dry ice. (for general instruction on transportation, click here.)

Reported values, interpretation

Reported values (riboflavin/FMN): 5-100/3-30 nmol/L.
Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (riboflavin/FMN): 0.79 /0.69.

Literature

1. Midttun, O., Hustad, S., and Ueland, P.M. (2009). Quantitative profiling of biomarkers related to B-vitamin status, tryptophan metabolism and inflammation in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Sp 23, 1371-79.
2. Hustad, S., McKinley, M.C., McNulty, H., Schneede, J., Strain, J.J., Scott, J.M., and Ueland, P.M. (2002). Riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide in human plasma and erythrocytes at baseline and after low-dose riboflavin supplementation. Clin Chem 48, 1571-77.

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Cardiometabolic
Inflammation
Microbiome
Nutrition
Categories

Amino acids, amino acid catabolites, acylcarnitines, TCA metabolites, ketone bodies, AGEs



Kynurenines, ratio-derived metabolites, proteins





SCFAs, indoles, choline metabolites, amino acid derived





B-vitamins, functional markers, and methyl donors, fat-soluble vitamins, essential amino acids, meat & fish intake, tobacco use & coffee intake
Biomarkers (n)
65
18
20
41
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Amino acids: Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Kynurenine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Ornithine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Sarcosine, Serine, Threonine, Total cysteine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Valine

Amino acid catabolites: 2-Aminoadipic acid, 2-Hydroxybutyrate, 3-Hydroxysiobutyrate, α-Hydroxyglutaric acid, β-Alanine, β-Aminoisobutyrate, β-Hydroxy B-methylbutyric acid, Phenylacetylglutamine

Acylcarnities: BB, C0, C2, C3, C3-DC, C4, C4-OH, C4-DC, iC5, C5-DC, C5:1, C6, C8, C10, C12, C14, C14-OH, C16, C16-OH, C18, C18-OH, C18:1, C18:2

TCA metabolites: α-Ketoglutarate, Citrate, Fumarate, Isocitrate, Lactate, Malate, Pyruvate

Ketone bodies: Acetoacetate, 3-Hydroxybutyrate

AGEs: Carboxyethyllysine, Carboxymethyllysine

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Kynurenines: 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, Anthranilic acid, Kynurenine, Kynurenic acid, Nicotinic acid, Nicotinamide, N1-methylnicotinamide, Picolinic acid, Quinaldic acid, Quinolinic acid, Xanthurenic acid

Neopterin

Proteins: C-Reactive protein, Calprotectin, Serum Amyloid A

Ratio-derived: Kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, PAr index (PLP, PL, PA)

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SCFAs: Acetate, Butyrate, Formate, Isobutyrate, Isovalerate, Propionate, Valerate, α-Methylbutyrate

Indoles: 3-Indoxyl sulfate, Imidazole propionate, Indole-3-acetamide, Indole-3-acetate, Indole-3-aldehyde, Indole-3-lactate, Indole-3-propionate

Choline metabolites: Choline, Betaine, DMG, TMAO

Amino acid derived: Phenylacetylglutamine

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B-vitamins, functional markers, and methyl donors: 4-Pyridoxic acid, Betaine, Choline, Cobalamin, Flavin mononucleotide, Folate, Methylmalonic acid, N1-methylnicotinamide, Nicotinamide, Nicotinic acid, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxal 5-phosphate, Pyridoxine, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Thiamine monophosphate, Total homocysteine

Fat-soluble vitamins: 25-hydroxy vitamin D2, 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, α-Tocopherol (Vit. E), All-trans retinol (Vit. A), Phylloquinone (Vit. K1), y-Tocopherol (Vit. E)

Essential amino acids: Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine

Meat and fish intake: 1-Methylhistidine, 3-Methylhistidine, B-Alanine, Creatine, Creatinine, TMAO

Tobacco use and coffee intake: Cotinine, Trans-3-hydroxycotinine, Trigonelline

Volume (μl)
200
150
250
300
Analytical techniques
GC- and LC-MS/MS
LC- and MALDI-MS
GC- and LC-MS/MS
GC- and LC-MS/MS
Turnaround time (weeks)
1
1
1
1

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