BEVITAL AS

Targeted Metabolomics Services

Vitamin A

A
Updated 21/12/2022

What is measured?

All-trans retinol.
Method(s): LC-MS/MS (1).

Indication(s)

All-trans retinol is a marker of vitamin A status.

Specimen, collection and processing

Patient/subject:
Preferred matrix: EDTA plasma.
Volume: Minimum volume is 50 µL, but 200 µL is optimal and allows reanalysis.
Preparation: Serum gel tubes must not be used. Samples should be put on ice, and protected from light.

Transportation

Protected from light, frozen, on dry ice (for general instruction on transportation, click here)

Reported values, interpretation

Reported values: 0.3-8 µmol/L.
Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC): 0.87.
Serum retinol <0.7 µmol/L has been regarded as indication of deficiency and low liver stores of vitamin A, whereas in vitamin A replete subjects serum retinol is homeostatically regulated and does not reflect liver stores. Retinol binding protein (RBP) correlated with serum retinol but is reduced during inflammation, which may confound the association of retinol concentration with low vitamin A status. Other confounders include reduced kidney function and obesity (2).

Literature

1. Midttun, Ø., McCann, A., Aarseth, O., Krokeide, M., Kvalheim, G., Meyer, K., and Ueland, P.M. (2016). Combined measurement of 6 fat-soluble vitamins and 26 water-soluble functional vitamin markers and amino acids in 50 μL of serum or plasma by high-throughput mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 88, 10427-436.
2. Tanumihardjo, S.A., Russell, R.M., Stephensen, C.B., Gannon, B.M., Craft, N.E., Haskell, M.J., Lietz, G., Schulze, K., and Raiten, D.J. (2016). Biomarkers of nutrition for development (BOND)-Vitamin A review. J Nutr 146, 1816S-848S.

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Cardiometabolic
Inflammation
Microbiome
Nutrition
Categories

Amino acids, amino acid catabolites, acylcarnitines, TCA metabolites, ketone bodies, AGEs



Kynurenines, ratio-derived metabolites, proteins





SCFAs, indoles, choline metabolites, amino acid derived





B-vitamins, functional markers, and methyl donors, fat-soluble vitamins, essential amino acids, meat & fish intake, tobacco use & coffee intake
Biomarkers (n)
65
18
20
41
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Amino acids: Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Kynurenine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Ornithine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Sarcosine, Serine, Threonine, Total cysteine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Valine

Amino acid catabolites: 2-Aminoadipic acid, 2-Hydroxybutyrate, 3-Hydroxysiobutyrate, α-Hydroxyglutaric acid, β-Alanine, β-Aminoisobutyrate, β-Hydroxy B-methylbutyric acid, Phenylacetylglutamine

Acylcarnities: BB, C0, C2, C3, C3-DC, C4, C4-OH, C4-DC, iC5, C5-DC, C5:1, C6, C8, C10, C12, C14, C14-OH, C16, C16-OH, C18, C18-OH, C18:1, C18:2

TCA metabolites: α-Ketoglutarate, Citrate, Fumarate, Isocitrate, Lactate, Malate, Pyruvate

Ketone bodies: Acetoacetate, 3-Hydroxybutyrate

AGEs: Carboxyethyllysine, Carboxymethyllysine

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Kynurenines: 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, Anthranilic acid, Kynurenine, Kynurenic acid, Nicotinic acid, Nicotinamide, N1-methylnicotinamide, Picolinic acid, Quinaldic acid, Quinolinic acid, Xanthurenic acid

Neopterin

Proteins: C-Reactive protein, Calprotectin, Serum Amyloid A

Ratio-derived: Kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, PAr index (PLP, PL, PA)

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SCFAs: Acetate, Butyrate, Formate, Isobutyrate, Isovalerate, Propionate, Valerate, α-Methylbutyrate

Indoles: 3-Indoxyl sulfate, Imidazole propionate, Indole-3-acetamide, Indole-3-acetate, Indole-3-aldehyde, Indole-3-lactate, Indole-3-propionate

Choline metabolites: Choline, Betaine, DMG, TMAO

Amino acid derived: Phenylacetylglutamine

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B-vitamins, functional markers, and methyl donors: 4-Pyridoxic acid, Betaine, Choline, Cobalamin, Flavin mononucleotide, Folate, Methylmalonic acid, N1-methylnicotinamide, Nicotinamide, Nicotinic acid, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxal 5-phosphate, Pyridoxine, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Thiamine monophosphate, Total homocysteine

Fat-soluble vitamins: 25-hydroxy vitamin D2, 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, α-Tocopherol (Vit. E), All-trans retinol (Vit. A), Phylloquinone (Vit. K1), y-Tocopherol (Vit. E)

Essential amino acids: Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine

Meat and fish intake: 1-Methylhistidine, 3-Methylhistidine, B-Alanine, Creatine, Creatinine, TMAO

Tobacco use and coffee intake: Cotinine, Trans-3-hydroxycotinine, Trigonelline

Volume (μl)
200
150
250
300
Analytical techniques
GC- and LC-MS/MS
LC- and MALDI-MS
GC- and LC-MS/MS
GC- and LC-MS/MS
Turnaround time (weeks)
1
1
1
1

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