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Targeted Metabolomics Services

Sarcosine

sarc
Updated 21/12/2022

What is measured?

Synonym: Monomethylglycine.
Method(s): GC-MS/MS. (1).

What is sarcosine?

Sarcosine is formed from dimethylglycine (dimethylglycine dehydrogenase) or by methylation of glycine (glycine-N-methyl transferase). It is degraded to glycine (sarcosine dehydrogenase).

Indication(s)

Assessment of choline and one-carbon status.

Specimen, collection and processing

Patient/subject: No special precaution.
Matrix: Sarcosine cannot be determined in samples collected into EDTA Vacutainer Tubes from some producer(s) (Becton, Dickinson), because of the presence of significant amounts of sarcosine in such tubes.
Volume: Minimum volume is 50 µL, but 200 µL is optimal and allows reanalysis.
Preparation and stability: The blood sample must be centrifuged and the plasma/serum fraction put on ice, and frozen.

Transportation

Frozen, on dry ice. (for general instruction on transportation, click here)

Reported values, interpretation

Reported values: 0.7-2.3 µmol/L
Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC): 0.68.

Literature

1. Midttun, Ø., McCann, A., Aarseth, O., Krokeide, M., Kvalheim, G., Meyer, K., and Ueland, P.M. (2016). Combined measurement of 6 fat-soluble vitamins and 26 water-soluble functional vitamin markers and amino acids in 50 μL of serum or plasma by high-throughput mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 88, 10427-436.

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Cardiometabolic
Inflammation
Microbiome
Nutrition
Categories

Amino acids, amino acid catabolites, acylcarnitines, TCA metabolites, ketone bodies, AGEs



Kynurenines, ratio-derived metabolites, proteins





SCFAs, indoles, choline metabolites, amino acid derived





B-vitamins, functional markers, and methyl donors, fat-soluble vitamins, essential amino acids, meat & fish intake, tobacco use & coffee intake
Biomarkers (n)
65
18
20
41
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Amino acids: Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Kynurenine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Ornithine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Sarcosine, Serine, Threonine, Total cysteine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Valine

Amino acid catabolites: 2-Aminoadipic acid, 2-Hydroxybutyrate, 3-Hydroxysiobutyrate, α-Hydroxyglutaric acid, β-Alanine, β-Aminoisobutyrate, β-Hydroxy B-methylbutyric acid, Phenylacetylglutamine

Acylcarnities: BB, C0, C2, C3, C3-DC, C4, C4-OH, C4-DC, iC5, C5-DC, C5:1, C6, C8, C10, C12, C14, C14-OH, C16, C16-OH, C18, C18-OH, C18:1, C18:2

TCA metabolites: α-Ketoglutarate, Citrate, Fumarate, Isocitrate, Lactate, Malate, Pyruvate

Ketone bodies: Acetoacetate, 3-Hydroxybutyrate

AGEs: Carboxyethyllysine, Carboxymethyllysine

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Kynurenines: 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, Anthranilic acid, Kynurenine, Kynurenic acid, Nicotinic acid, Nicotinamide, N1-methylnicotinamide, Picolinic acid, Quinaldic acid, Quinolinic acid, Xanthurenic acid

Neopterin

Proteins: C-Reactive protein, Calprotectin, Serum Amyloid A

Ratio-derived: Kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, PAr index (PLP, PL, PA)

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SCFAs: Acetate, Butyrate, Formate, Isobutyrate, Isovalerate, Propionate, Valerate, α-Methylbutyrate

Indoles: 3-Indoxyl sulfate, Imidazole propionate, Indole-3-acetamide, Indole-3-acetate, Indole-3-aldehyde, Indole-3-lactate, Indole-3-propionate

Choline metabolites: Choline, Betaine, DMG, TMAO

Amino acid derived: Phenylacetylglutamine

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B-vitamins, functional markers, and methyl donors: 4-Pyridoxic acid, Betaine, Choline, Cobalamin, Flavin mononucleotide, Folate, Methylmalonic acid, N1-methylnicotinamide, Nicotinamide, Nicotinic acid, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxal 5-phosphate, Pyridoxine, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Thiamine monophosphate, Total homocysteine

Fat-soluble vitamins: 25-hydroxy vitamin D2, 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, α-Tocopherol (Vit. E), All-trans retinol (Vit. A), Phylloquinone (Vit. K1), y-Tocopherol (Vit. E)

Essential amino acids: Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine

Meat and fish intake: 1-Methylhistidine, 3-Methylhistidine, B-Alanine, Creatine, Creatinine, TMAO

Tobacco use and coffee intake: Cotinine, Trans-3-hydroxycotinine, Trigonelline

Volume (μl)
200
150
250
300
Analytical techniques
GC- and LC-MS/MS
LC- and MALDI-MS
GC- and LC-MS/MS
GC- and LC-MS/MS
Turnaround time (weeks)
1
1
1
1

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