BEVITAL AS

Targeted Metabolomics Services

Imidazole propionate

ImP
Updated 21/12/2022

What is measured?

Synonyms: 1H-Imidazole-4-propanoic acid, 3-(imidazol-4-yl)propionic acid, 3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid, deamino-histidine, dihydrourocanate.
Method(s): LC-MS/MS (1).

What is imidazole propionate?

Imidazole propionate (ImP) is a histidine metabolite formed by microbiota. Blood ImP levels are positively associated with a dysbiotic microbiome (Bacteroides 2 enterotype and reduced gene richness), induced by an unhealthy diet, and elevated circulating ImP is linked to gut inflammation and cardiovascular disease. ImP is increased in pre- and type 2 diabetes and is associated with markers of impaired glucose status, independent of diabetes status (2). Mechanistic studies indicate that ImP impairs insulin signalling at the level of Insulin Receptor Substrate (IRS) through activation of the P38gamma/p62/mTORC1 pathway (3).

Indication(s)

Assessment of diabetes risk, and profiling of microbiota-derived metabolites.

Specimen, collection and processing

Matrix: Serum, EDTA plasma and urine
Volume: Minimum volume is 60 µL, but 200 µL is optimal and allows reanalysis.
Preparation and stability: Probably stable.

Transportation

Frozen, on dry ice. (for general instruction on transportation, click here)

Reported values, interpretation

Reported values: 3-500 nmol/L
Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC): na.

Literature

1. Midttun, O., Hustad, S., and Ueland, P.M. (2009). Quantitative profiling of biomarkers related to B-vitamin status, tryptophan metabolism and inflammation in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Sp 23, 1371-79.
2. Molinaro, A., Bel Lassen, P., Henricsson, M., Wu, H., Adriouch, S., Belda, E., Chakaroun, R., Nielsen, T., Bergh, P. O., Rouault, C., André, S., Marquet, F., Andreelli, F., Salem, J. E., Assmann, K., Bastard, J. P., Forslund, S., Le Chatelier, E., Falony, G., . . . Bäckhed, F. (2020). Imidazole propionate is increased in diabetes and associated with dietary patterns and altered microbial ecology. Nat Commun, 11, 5881.
3. Koh, A., Molinaro, A., Ståhlman, M., Khan, M. T., Schmidt, C., Mannerås-Holm, L., Wu, H., Carreras, A., Jeong, H., Olofsson, L. E., Bergh, P. O., Gerdes, V., Hartstra, A., de Brauw, M., Perkins, R., Nieuwdorp, M., Bergström, G., & Bäckhed, F. (2018). Microbially produced imidazole propionate impairs insulin signaling through mTORC1. Cell, 175, 947-961.

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Cardiometabolic
Inflammation
Microbiome
Nutrition
Categories

Amino acids, amino acid catabolites, acylcarnitines, TCA metabolites, ketone bodies, AGEs



Kynurenines, ratio-derived metabolites, proteins





SCFAs, indoles, choline metabolites, amino acid derived





B-vitamins, functional markers, and methyl donors, fat-soluble vitamins, essential amino acids, meat & fish intake, tobacco use & coffee intake
Biomarkers (n)
65
18
20
41
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Amino acids: Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Kynurenine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Ornithine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Sarcosine, Serine, Threonine, Total cysteine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Valine

Amino acid catabolites: 2-Aminoadipic acid, 2-Hydroxybutyrate, 3-Hydroxysiobutyrate, α-Hydroxyglutaric acid, β-Alanine, β-Aminoisobutyrate, β-Hydroxy B-methylbutyric acid, Phenylacetylglutamine

Acylcarnities: BB, C0, C2, C3, C3-DC, C4, C4-OH, C4-DC, iC5, C5-DC, C5:1, C6, C8, C10, C12, C14, C14-OH, C16, C16-OH, C18, C18-OH, C18:1, C18:2

TCA metabolites: α-Ketoglutarate, Citrate, Fumarate, Isocitrate, Lactate, Malate, Pyruvate

Ketone bodies: Acetoacetate, 3-Hydroxybutyrate

AGEs: Carboxyethyllysine, Carboxymethyllysine

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Kynurenines: 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, Anthranilic acid, Kynurenine, Kynurenic acid, Nicotinic acid, Nicotinamide, N1-methylnicotinamide, Picolinic acid, Quinaldic acid, Quinolinic acid, Xanthurenic acid

Neopterin

Proteins: C-Reactive protein, Calprotectin, Serum Amyloid A

Ratio-derived: Kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, PAr index (PLP, PL, PA)

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SCFAs: Acetate, Butyrate, Formate, Isobutyrate, Isovalerate, Propionate, Valerate, α-Methylbutyrate

Indoles: 3-Indoxyl sulfate, Imidazole propionate, Indole-3-acetamide, Indole-3-acetate, Indole-3-aldehyde, Indole-3-lactate, Indole-3-propionate

Choline metabolites: Choline, Betaine, DMG, TMAO

Amino acid derived: Phenylacetylglutamine

View

B-vitamins, functional markers, and methyl donors: 4-Pyridoxic acid, Betaine, Choline, Cobalamin, Flavin mononucleotide, Folate, Methylmalonic acid, N1-methylnicotinamide, Nicotinamide, Nicotinic acid, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxal 5-phosphate, Pyridoxine, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Thiamine monophosphate, Total homocysteine

Fat-soluble vitamins: 25-hydroxy vitamin D2, 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, α-Tocopherol (Vit. E), All-trans retinol (Vit. A), Phylloquinone (Vit. K1), y-Tocopherol (Vit. E)

Essential amino acids: Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine

Meat and fish intake: 1-Methylhistidine, 3-Methylhistidine, B-Alanine, Creatine, Creatinine, TMAO

Tobacco use and coffee intake: Cotinine, Trans-3-hydroxycotinine, Trigonelline

Volume (μl)
200
150
250
300
Analytical techniques
GC- and LC-MS/MS
LC- and MALDI-MS
GC- and LC-MS/MS
GC- and LC-MS/MS
Turnaround time (weeks)
1
1
1
1

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