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Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)

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Uniprot.org
Updated 21/12/2022

What is measured?

Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), which is measured in whole blood and not simultaneously with the other serum/plasma biomarkers on platform G.
Method(s): MALDI-TOF MS (1).

What is HbA1c?

It is formed by non-enzymatically attachment of glucose to different amino groups of both 2 alpha and 2 beta chains of normal adult hemoglobin A (HbA). The relative amount of glucose bond to the N-terminal of the beta chain is measured as HbA1c. HbA1c is used to monitor long-term glycaemic control and treatment of diabetes.

Performance of the assay

No interferences from bilirubin, triglyceride, labile A 1c, and carbamylated hemoglobin (1).

Indication(s)

Assessment of long-term glycemic control in diabetics.

Specimen, collection and processing

Matrix: Whole blood.
Volume: Minimum volume is 20 µL, but 100 µL is optimal and allows reanalysis.
Preparation and stability: The blood sample must be put on ice, and frozen. HbA1c is stable for one week at 4-8C. At -70 °C, HbA1c is stable for many years and slightly increases if stored for more than one decade.

Transportation

Frozen, on dry ice. (for general instruction on transportation, click here)

Reported values, interpretation

Reference values: 4-6%.
In diabetes patients values can range from 6.5 up to 14%.
Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC): na.

Literature

1. Biroccio A, Urbani A, Massoud R, et al. (2005). A quantitative method for the analysis of glycated and glutathionylated hemoglobin by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem, 336(2):279-288.

2. Xu, A., Wang, Y., Li, J., Liu, G., Li, X., Chen, W. et al. (2019). Evaluation of MALDI-TOF MS for the measurement of glycated hemoglobin. Clin Chim Acta, 498, 154-160.

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Cardiometabolic
Inflammation
Microbiome
Nutrition
Categories

Amino acids, amino acid catabolites, acylcarnitines, TCA metabolites, ketone bodies, AGEs



Kynurenines, ratio-derived metabolites, proteins





SCFAs, indoles, choline metabolites, amino acid derived





B-vitamins, functional markers, and methyl donors, fat-soluble vitamins, essential amino acids, meat & fish intake, tobacco use & coffee intake
Biomarkers (n)
65
18
20
41
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Amino acids: Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Kynurenine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Ornithine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Sarcosine, Serine, Threonine, Total cysteine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Valine

Amino acid catabolites: 2-Aminoadipic acid, 2-Hydroxybutyrate, 3-Hydroxysiobutyrate, α-Hydroxyglutaric acid, β-Alanine, β-Aminoisobutyrate, β-Hydroxy B-methylbutyric acid, Phenylacetylglutamine

Acylcarnities: BB, C0, C2, C3, C3-DC, C4, C4-OH, C4-DC, iC5, C5-DC, C5:1, C6, C8, C10, C12, C14, C14-OH, C16, C16-OH, C18, C18-OH, C18:1, C18:2

TCA metabolites: α-Ketoglutarate, Citrate, Fumarate, Isocitrate, Lactate, Malate, Pyruvate

Ketone bodies: Acetoacetate, 3-Hydroxybutyrate

AGEs: Carboxyethyllysine, Carboxymethyllysine

View

Kynurenines: 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, Anthranilic acid, Kynurenine, Kynurenic acid, Nicotinic acid, Nicotinamide, N1-methylnicotinamide, Picolinic acid, Quinaldic acid, Quinolinic acid, Xanthurenic acid

Neopterin

Proteins: C-Reactive protein, Calprotectin, Serum Amyloid A

Ratio-derived: Kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, PAr index (PLP, PL, PA)

View

SCFAs: Acetate, Butyrate, Formate, Isobutyrate, Isovalerate, Propionate, Valerate, α-Methylbutyrate

Indoles: 3-Indoxyl sulfate, Imidazole propionate, Indole-3-acetamide, Indole-3-acetate, Indole-3-aldehyde, Indole-3-lactate, Indole-3-propionate

Choline metabolites: Choline, Betaine, DMG, TMAO

Amino acid derived: Phenylacetylglutamine

View

B-vitamins, functional markers, and methyl donors: 4-Pyridoxic acid, Betaine, Choline, Cobalamin, Flavin mononucleotide, Folate, Methylmalonic acid, N1-methylnicotinamide, Nicotinamide, Nicotinic acid, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxal 5-phosphate, Pyridoxine, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Thiamine monophosphate, Total homocysteine

Fat-soluble vitamins: 25-hydroxy vitamin D2, 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, α-Tocopherol (Vit. E), All-trans retinol (Vit. A), Phylloquinone (Vit. K1), y-Tocopherol (Vit. E)

Essential amino acids: Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine

Meat and fish intake: 1-Methylhistidine, 3-Methylhistidine, B-Alanine, Creatine, Creatinine, TMAO

Tobacco use and coffee intake: Cotinine, Trans-3-hydroxycotinine, Trigonelline

Volume (μl)
200
150
250
300
Analytical techniques
GC- and LC-MS/MS
LC- and MALDI-MS
GC- and LC-MS/MS
GC- and LC-MS/MS
Turnaround time (weeks)
1
1
1
1

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