Targeted Metabolomics Services

2-Aminoadipic acid

Updated 21/12/2022

What is measured?

Synonyms: 2-Aminohexanedioic acid, alpha-aminoadipic acid.
Method(s): GC-MS/MS (1).

What is 2-aminoadipic acid?

Aminoadipic acid (2-aminoadipate; 2-AAA) is formed through lysine metabolism or degradation of tissues or plasma proteins. Such degradation has been associated with ageing, renal failure and diabetes, and may be part of a carbonyl stress pathway in diabetes. 2-AAA has neuroexcitatory properties, possible by inhibiting the production of kynurenic acid. Most important, plasma 2-AAA is a strong predictor of incident diabetes, independent of other risk factors (2). The association with diabetes risk has been explained by stimulation of insulin secretion by 2-AAA, as observed in experimental studies.


Assessment of risk of diabetes type 2.

Specimen, collection and processing

Patient/subject: No special precaution.
Matrix: Serum or EDTA plasma.
Volume: Minimum volume is 50 µL, but 200 µL is optimal and allows reanalysis.
Preparation and stability: Stable.


Frozen, on dry ice. (for general instruction on transportation, click here)

Reported values, interpretation

Reported values: 0.3-2 µmol/L
Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC): na.


1. Midttun, Ø., McCann, A., Aarseth, O., Krokeide, M., Kvalheim, G., Meyer, K., and Ueland, P.M. (2016). Combined measurement of 6 fat-soluble vitamins and 26 water-soluble functional vitamin markers and amino acids in 50 μL of serum or plasma by high-throughput mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 88, 10427-436.
2. Wang, T.J., Ngo, D., Psychogios, N., Dejam, A., Larson, M.G., Vasan, R.S., Ghorbani, A., O’Sullivan, J., Cheng, S., et al. (2013). 2-Aminoadipic acid is a biomarker for diabetes risk. J Clin Invest 123, 4309-317.

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