Pathologies & Physiology

This page provides description of our biomarkers including information on indications, optimal sample collection, volume requirements, sample matrix, recommended conditions for transportation and storage, and interpretation of values.*


Endothelial function


Keton bodies

Liver pathology



Renal function

Uremic toxin

* Reported values are not strictly normal reference range, which depends on the population, and several factors, including age, gender, ethnicity and procedures for sample handling and analytical technology. Reported values are concentrations that we and others have observed or reported in various cohorts of healthy subjects.

April 20, 2023

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